Marketing

The Marketing Concept:

  • Evolution of Marketing
  • Business Orientations
  • Societal Issues & Emergent Philosophies
  • Customer & Competitor Orientation
  • Efficiency & Effectiveness
  • Limitations of the Marketing Concept

Marketing process overview:

  • Marketing Audit
  • Integrated marketing
  • Environmental Analysis
  • SWOT Analysis
  • Marketing Objectives
  • Constraints
  • Options
  • Marketing planning

Costs and benefits:

  • Benefits of Building Customer Satisfaction
  • Service and Customer Care
  • Relationship Marketing
  • Customer Retention
  • Customer Profitability
  • Total Quality Marketing

Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning

Macro-environment:

  • Environment Scanning
  • Political, Legal, Economic
  • Socio-cultural, Ecological & Technological Factors

Micro-environment:

  • Stakeholders (Organisation’s Own Employees, Suppliers, Customers, Intermediaries, Owner’s Financiers, Local Residents, Pressure Groups & Competitors)
  • Direct & Indirect Competitors
  • Porter’s Competitive Forces

Buyer Behaviour: Dimensions of Buyer Behaviour

  • Environmental Influences
  • Personal Variables – Demographic, Sociological, Psychological-motivation, Perception & Learning
  • Social Factors
  • Psychological Stimuli
  • Attitudes
  • Other Lifestyle & Life Cycle Variables
  • Consumer & Organisational Buying

Segmentation:

  • Process of Market Selection
  • Macro & Micro Segmentation
  • Bases for Segmenting Markets: Geographical, Demographic, Psychographic & Behavioural
  • Multivariable Segmentation & Typologies
  • Benefits of Segmentation
  • Evaluation of Segments & Targeting Strategies
  • Positioning
  • Segmenting Industrial Markets
  • Size
  • Value
  • Standards
  • Industrial Classification

Marketing mix

Products:

  • Products & Brands – Features, Advantages & Benefits
  • The Total Product Concept
  • Product Mix
  • Product Life-cycle & Its Effect on Other Elements of the Marketing Mix
  • Product Strategy
  • New Product Development
  • Adoption Process

Place:

  • Customer Convenience & Availability
  • Definition of Channels
  • Types & Functions of Intermediaries
  • Channel Selection
  • Integration & Distribution Systems
  • Franchising
  • Physical Distribution Management & Logistics
  • Ethical Issues

Price:

  • Perceived Value
  • Pricing Context & Process
  • Pricing Strategies
  • Demand Elasticity
  • Competition
  • Costs
  • Psychological
  • Discriminatory
  • Ethical Issues

Promotion:

  • Awareness & Image
  • Effective Communication
  • Integrated Communication Process
  • Promotional Mix Elements
  • Push & Pull Strategies
  • Advertising Above & Below the Line
  • Packaging
  • Public Relations & Sponsorship
  • Sales Promotion
  • Direct Marketing & Personal Selling
  • Branding
  • On-line Marketing

Different Marketing Segments & Contexts

Consumer Markets:

  • Fast-moving Consumer Goods
  • Consumer Durables
  • Co-ordinated Marketing Mix to Achieve Objectives

Organisational Markets:

  • Differences From Consumer Markets
  • Adding Value Through Service
  • Industrial
  • Non-profit Making
  • Government
  • Re-seller

Services:

  • Nature & Characteristics of Service Products – Intangibility, Ownership, Inseparability, Perishability, Variability
  • Heterogeneity – the 7Ps
  • Strategies
  • Service Quality
  • Elements of Physical Product Marketing
  • Tangible & Intangible Benefits

International Markets:

  • Globalisation
  • Standardisation Versus Adaptation
  • The EU / Benefits & Risks
  • Market Attractiveness
  • International Marketing Mix Strategies